Cancer

Cancer

Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.[2][8] Not all tumors are cancerous; benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body.[8] Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss and a change in bowel movements.[1] While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they may have other causes.[1] Over 100 types of cancers affect humans.[8]
Tobacco use is the cause of about 22% of cancer deaths.[2] Another 10% is due to obesity, poor diet, lack of physical activity, and excessive drinking of alcohol.[2][9][10] Other factors include certain infections, exposure to ionizing radiation and environmental pollutants.[3] In the developing world nearly 20% of cancers are due to infections such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human papillomavirus (HPV).[2] These factors act, at least partly, by changing the genes of a cell.[11] Typically many genetic changes are required before cancer develops.[11] Approximately 5–10% of cancers are due to inherited genetic defects from a person\'s parents.[12] Cancer can be detected by certain signs and symptoms or screening tests.[2] It is then typically further investigated by medical imaging and confirmed by biopsy.[13]
Many cancers can be prevented by not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, not drinking too much alcohol, eating plenty of vegetables, fruits and whole grains, vaccination against certain infectious diseases, not eating too much processed and red meat, and avoiding too much sunlight exposure.[14][15] Early detection through screening is useful for cervical and colorectal cancer.[16] The benefits of screening in breast cancer are controversial.[16][17] Cancer is often treated with some combination of radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy.[2][4] Pain and symptom management are an important part of care. Palliative care is particularly important in people with advanced disease.[2] The chance of survival depends on the type of cancer and extent of disease at the start of treatment.[11] In children under 15 at diagnosis the five-year survival rate in the developed world is on average 80%.[18] For cancer in the United States the average five-year survival rate is 66%.[5]
In 2015 about 90.5 million people had cancer.[6] About 14.1 million new cases occur a year (not including skin cancer other than melanoma).[11] It caused about 8.8 million deaths (15.7%) of human deaths.[7] The most common types of cancer in males are lung cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer and stomach cancer. In females, the most common types are breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer and cervical cancer.[11] If skin cancer other than melanoma were included in total new cancers each year it would account for around 40% of cases.[19][20] In children, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and brain tumors are most common except in Africa where non-Hodgkin lymphoma occurs more often.[18] In 2012, about 165,000 children under 15 years of age were diagnosed with cancer. The risk of cancer increases significantly with age and many cancers occur more commonly in developed countries.[11] Rates are increasing as more people live to an old age and as lifestyle changes occur in the developing world.
Definitions
Cancers are a large family of diseases that involve abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.[2][8] They form a subset of neoplasms. A neoplasm or tumor is a group of cells that have undergone unregulated growth and will often form a mass or lump, but may be distributed diffusely.[23][24]
All tumor cells show the six hallmarks of cancer. These characteristics are required to produce a malignant tumor. They include:[25]
Cell growth and division absent the proper signals
Continuous growth and division even given contrary signals
Avoidance of programmed cell death
Limitless number of cell divisions
Promoting blood vessel construction
Invasion of tissue and formation of metastases
The progression from normal cells to cells that can form a detectable mass to outright cancer involves multiple steps known as malignant progression
Signs and symptoms
When cancer begins, it produces no symptoms. Signs and symptoms appear as the mass grows or ulcerates. The findings that result depend on the cancer\'s type and location. Few symptoms are specific. Many frequently occur in individuals who have other conditions. Cancer is a \"great imitator\". Thus, it is common for people diagnosed with cancer to have been treated for other diseases, which were hypothesized to be causing their symptoms.[28]
People may become anxious or depressed post-diagnosis. The risk of suicide in people with cancer is approximately double.[29]
Local symptoms
Local symptoms may occur due to the mass of the tumor or its ulceration. For example, mass effects from lung cancer can block the bronchus resulting in cough or pneumonia; esophageal cancer can cause narrowing of the esophagus, making it difficult or painful to swallow; and colorectal cancer may lead to narrowing or blockages in the bowel, affecting bowel habits. Masses in breasts or testicles may produce observable lumps. Ulceration can cause bleeding that, if it occurs in the lung, will lead to coughing up blood, in the bowels to anemia or rectal bleeding, in the bladder to blood in the urine and in the uterus to vaginal bleeding. Although localized pain may occur in advanced cancer, the initial swelling is usually painless. Some cancers can cause a buildup of fluid within the chest or abdomen.[28
Systemic symptoms
General symptoms occur due to effects that are not related to direct or metastatic spread. These may include: unintentional weight loss, fever, excessive fatigue and changes to the skin.[30] Hodgkin disease, leukemias and cancers of the liver or kidney can cause a persistent fever.
Some cancers may cause specific groups of systemic symptoms, termed paraneoplastic phenomena. Examples include the appearance of myasthenia gravis in thymoma and clubbing in lung cancer.
Metastasis
Cancer can spread from its original site by local spread, lymphatic spread to regional lymph nodes or by hematogenous spread via the blood to distant sites, known as metastasis. When cancer spreads by a hematogenous route, it usually spreads all over the body. However, cancer \'seeds\' grow in certain selected site only (\'soil\') as hypothesized in the soil and seed hypothesis of cancer metastasis. The symptoms of metastatic cancers depend on the tumor location and can include enlarged lymph nodes (which can be felt or sometimes seen under the skin and are typically hard), enlarged liver or enlarged spleen, which can be felt in the abdomen, pain or fracture of affected bones and neurological symptoms.
Causes
The majority of cancers, some 90–95% of cases, are due to environmental factors. The remaining 5–10% are due to inherited genetics. Environmental, as used by cancer researchers, means any cause that is not inherited genetically, such as lifestyle, economic and behavioral factors and not merely pollution.[31] Common environmental factors that contribute to cancer death include tobacco (25–30%), diet and obesity (30–35%), infections (15–20%), radiation (both ionizing and non-ionizing, up to 10%), stress, lack of physical activity and environmental pollutants.
It is not generally possible to prove what caused a particular cancer because the various causes do not have specific fingerprints. For example, if a person who uses tobacco heavily develops lung cancer, then it was probably caused by the tobacco use, but since everyone has a small chance of developing lung cancer as a result of air pollution or radiation, the cancer may have developed for one of those reasons. Excepting the rare transmissions that occur with pregnancies and occasional organ donors, cancer is generally not a transmissible disease.

Acute Leukemia Treatment

Acute Leukemia Treatment

Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer of the blood and bone marrow — the spongy tissue inside bones where blood cells are made. The word "acute" in acute lymphocytic leukemia comes

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Adrenal Cancer Treatment

Adrenal Cancer Treatment

Adrenal cancer is a condition that occurs when abnormal cells form in or travel to the adrenal glands. Your body has two adrenal glands, one located above each kidney. Adrenal cancer usually occurs in

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Anal Cancer Treatment

Anal Cancer Treatment

Anal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the anus. Being infected with the human papillomavirus (HPV) increases the risk of developing anal cancer. Signs of an

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Astrocytoma Treatment

Astrocytoma Treatment

Astrocytomas are a type of cancer of the brain. They originate in a particular kind of glial cells, star-shaped brain cells in the cerebrum called astrocytes. This type of tumor does not usually sprea

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Benign Soft Tissue Tumor Treatment

Benign Soft Tissue Tumor Treatment

Benign tumors of soft tissue are more common than benign tumors of bone. They can occur at almost any site, both within and between muscles, ligaments, nerves, and blood vessels. ... The majority of t

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Bile Duct Cancer Treatment

Bile Duct Cancer Treatment

Bile duct cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the bile ducts. Having colitis or certain liver diseases can increase the risk of bile duct cancer. Signs of bile duct canc

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Bladder Cancer Treatment

Bladder Cancer Treatment

Bladder cancer is a type of cancer that begins in your bladder — a balloon-shaped organ in your pelvic area that stores urine. Bladder cancer begins most often in the cells that line the inside of t

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Blastoma Treatment

Blastoma Treatment

A blastoma is a type of cancer, more common in children, that is caused by malignancies in precursor cells, often called blasts. Examples are nephroblastoma, medulloblastoma and retinoblastoma.n

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Brachytherapy

Brachytherapy

the treatment of cancer, especially prostate cancer, by the insertion of radioactive implants directly into the tissue.n

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Brainstem Glioma Treatment

Brainstem Glioma Treatment

A brainstem glioma is a cancerous glioma tumor in the brainstem. Around 75% are diagnosed in children and young adults under the age of twenty, but have been known to affect older adults as well. Brai

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Breast Cancer Treatment

Breast Cancer Treatment

Breast cancer is a kind of cancer that develops from breast cells. Breast cancer usually starts off in the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply them with milk. A malignant tumor can s

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Cancer Screening

Cancer Screening

Cancer screening aims to detect cancer before symptoms appear. This may involve blood tests, urine tests, other tests, or medical imaging. The benefits of screening in terms of cancer prevention, earl

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Cancer Staging

Cancer Staging

Stage II and III. These stages indicate larger cancers or tumors that have grown more deeply into nearby tissue. They may have also spread to lymph nodes but not to other parts of the body. Stage IV.

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Castleman Disease Treatment

Castleman Disease Treatment

Castleman disease (CD) is a rare disease of lymph nodes and related tissues. It is also known as Castleman's disease, giant lymph node hyperplasia, and angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia (AFH).n

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Central Nervous System (CNS) Lymphoma Treatment

Central Nervous System (CNS) Lymphoma Treatment

the complex of nerve tissues that controls the activities of the body. In vertebrates it comprises the brain and spinal cord.n

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Cervical Cancer Treatment

Cervical Cancer Treatment

Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the cells of the cervix — the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. Various strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually t

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Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy

the treatment of disease by the use of chemical substances, especially the treatment of cancer by cytotoxic and other drugs.n

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Chondroblastoma Treatment

Chondroblastoma Treatment

Chondroblastoma is a rare, benign, locally aggressive bone tumor that typically affects the epiphyses or apophyses of long bones. It is thought to arise from an outgrowth of immature cartilage cells (

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Chondrosarcoma Treatment

Chondrosarcoma Treatment

Chondrosarcoma is a cancer composed of cells derived from transformed cells that produce cartilage. Chondrosarcoma is a member of a category of tumors of bone and soft tissue known as sarcomas.n

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Chordoma Treatment

Chordoma Treatment

Chordoma is a rare slow-growing neoplasm thought to arise from cellular remnants of the notochord.n

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Choroid Plexus Tumor Treatment

Choroid Plexus Tumor Treatment

These tumors arise from brain tissue called the “choroid plexus.” They commonly invade nearby tissue and spread widely via the cerebrospinal fluid. Choroid plexus papilloma is a rare, benign (nonc

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Chronic Leukemia Treatment

Chronic Leukemia Treatment

Chronic leukemia is an increase of abnormal white blood cells. It differs from acute leukemia, and is categorized as myelogenous or lymphocytic. Chronic leukemia may refer to: Chronic myelogenous leuk

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Colon/Bowel Cancer Treatment

Colon/Bowel Cancer Treatment

Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine). A cancer is the abnormal growth of cells that have the abilit

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Craniopharyngioma Treatment

Craniopharyngioma Treatment

Craniopharyngioma is a type of brain tumor derived from pituitary gland embryonic tissue, that occurs most commonly in children but also in men and women in their 50s and 60s. People may present with

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Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumor Treatment

Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumor Treatment

Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour, commonly abbreviated DNT or DNET, is a type of brain tumor. Most commonly found in the temporal lobe, DNTs have been classified as benign tumours. These are gl

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Endometrial Cancer Treatment

Endometrial Cancer Treatment

Endometrial cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the uterus. The uterus is the hollow, pear-shaped pelvic organ in women where fetal development occurs. Endometrial cancer begins in the layer of

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Ependymoblastoma Treatment

Ependymoblastoma Treatment

ependymoblastoma. [ipen′dimōblastō′mə] a malignant neoplasm composed of primitive cells of the ependyma. Also called malignant ependymoma.n

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Ependymoma Treatment

Ependymoma Treatment

Ependymoma is a tumor that arises from the ependyma, a tissue of the central nervous system. Usually, in pediatric cases the location is intracranial, while in adults it is spinal. The common location

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Esophageal Cancer Treatment

Esophageal Cancer Treatment

Esophageal cancer is cancer that occurs in the esophagus — a long, hollow tube that runs from your throat to your stomach. Your esophagus carries food you swallow to your stomach to be digested. Eso

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Gallbladder Cancer Treatment

Gallbladder Cancer Treatment

Gallbladder cancer is cancer that begins in the gallbladder. Your gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped organ on the right side of your abdomen, just beneath your liver. The gallbladder stores bile, a d

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Germ Cell Tumor (GCT) Treatment

Germ Cell Tumor (GCT) Treatment

"nA germ cell tumor (GCT) is a neoplasm derived from germ cells. Germ cell tumors can be cancerous or non-cancerous tumors. Germ cells normally occur inside the gonads (ovary and testis). Germ cell t

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Germ Cell Tumor (GCT) Treatment

Germ Cell Tumor (GCT) Treatment

"nA germ cell tumor (GCT) is a neoplasm derived from germ cells. Germ cell tumors can be cancerous or non-cancerous tumors. Germ cells normally occur inside the gonads (ovary and testis). Germ cell t

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Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD) Treatment

Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD) Treatment

Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a term used for a group of pregnancy-related tumours. These tumours are rare, and they appear when cells in the womb start to proliferate uncontrollably.n

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Glioblastoma Treatment

Glioblastoma Treatment

"a highly invasive glioma in the brain.n"n

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Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

Head and neck cancer is a group of cancers that starts within the mouth, nose, throat, larynx, sinuses, or salivary glands. Symptoms may include a lump or sore that does not heal, a sore throat that d

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Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment

Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment

Hodgkin disease is a type of lymphoma. Lymphoma is a cancer of a part of the immune system called the lymph system. The first sign of Hodgkin disease is often an enlarged lymph node. The disease can s

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Hyperthermia Therapy

Hyperthermia Therapy

"Image result for Hyperthermia Therapy meaningnHyperthermia therapy is a type of medical treatment in which body tissue is exposed to higher temperatures. Hyperthermia uses higher temperatures than d

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Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy

the treatment of disease by the use of chemical substances, especially the treatment of cancer by cytotoxic and other drugs.

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Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC)

Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC)

Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is a highly concentrated, heated chemotherapy treatment that is delivered directly to the abdomen during surgery. Unlike systemic chemotherapy deliver

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Humanheal - best treatment for Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy

the prevention or treatment of disease with substances that stimulate the immune response.

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